Class 10 Social Studies Quick Review | INDIA : RELIEF FEATURES

 Class 10 Social Studies Quick Review |  INDIA: RELIEF FEATURES

Class 10 Social Studies Quick Review |  INDIA : RELIEF FEATURES

I)             India's Location

·                India lies in the northern hemisphere and towards south of Asian continent.

·                The country's main land lies between latitudes 8o4' North, and 37o6' North and 68o7' East to 97o25' East longitudes.

II)         'India is a Peninsula'

·                A Peninsula is any landmass that is surrounded by water on three sides and land on one side.

·                India is surrounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.

III)      India is known as the 'Sub continent'

·                Having vast area, vast diversity in climatic conditions, variety of vegetation, life forms along with advantages for growing many kinds of crops, way of living and languages makes India as a subcontinent.

Class 10 Social Studies Quick Review |  INDIA : RELIEF FEATURES

IV)      IST and GMT

·                82o30' East longitude is taken as Indian standard meridian and the time on it is followed as Indian Standard Time. IST is ahead by 5 1/2 hours of GMT.

·                Greenwich longitude is '0o' longitude which passes through Greenwich city, London in England. The time on this longitude is referred as GMT.

V)          Geological background and Major Relief Divisions of India

·                The Indian peninsula was part of Gondwana land. Over 200 million years ago Gondwana land split into pieces and the Peninsular Indian plate moved towards North-East and collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate (Angara land).

·                Owing to the collision and immense compression force, mountains evolved through a folding process over millions of years.

·                The present form of the Himalayas is a result of this process.

·                The relief features of the Indian landmass can be divided into the following groups :




The Himalayas

The Peninsular Plateau



The Indo-Gangetic plain

The Coastal plains


The Desert


The Islands


VI)      The Himalayas

·                Himalayas are located towards the North of India. These are the highest and youngest folded mountains in the world.

·                Himalayas extend in the West-East direction with a distance of 2400 km and width, 500 km in the West to 200 km in the East.

VII)  The Himalayas consists of three parallel ranges. They are

1.             Greater Himalayas (Himadri)

2.             Lesser Himalayas (Himachal)

3.             Outer Himalayas (Shivalik)

·                The Greater Himalayas' average elevation is 6100 mts. above mean sea level and the Lesser Himalayas is 3500 mts. to 4500 mts.

·                Greater Himalayas have glaciers. The movement and melting of these glaciers are the sources of the perennial rivers.

·                The Pirpanjal and Mahabarata ranges are important ranges of Lesser Himalayas.

VIII)   Himalayan valleys and Hill stations

·                Lesser Himalayas consist of the famous valleys of Kashmir, Kangra and Kulu.

·                This region is well known for many hill stations like Manali, Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet etc. which are covered with ever green forests.

IX)      Highest Peaks

·                Greater Himalayas are consist of the highest peaks like Everest, K2 Godwin Austin, Kanchan Ganga, Annapurna, Dhavalagiri, Namchabharva, Nanda Devi, Manaslu etc.

X)         Duns and Duars

·                The silt and sediments brought by the rivers got deposited in the lakes of Shivalik Ranges.

·                After the rivers had cut their course through the Shiwalik Ranges, the lakes are drained away leaving behind plains called Duns in the west and Duars in the east.

·                Dehradun in Uttaranchal is the best example of such plains.

XI)      Importance of the Himalayas

The formation of the Himalayas influences India's climate in various ways

·                Himalayas provide natural protection to our country.

·                These act as barriers protecting the great plains of India from the cold winds from central Asia during severe winter.

·                The Himalayas are the reason for summer rains and monsoon type of climate in the regions that are beyond the Western Ghats of India.


·                In its absence, this region would have remained drier

·                The Himalayan Rivers are Perennial, which bring a lot of silt and form the fertile northern plains.

XII)  The Indo-Gangetic Plains

·                The Himalayan Perennial Rivers, the Ganga, the Indus and the Bhrahmaputra and their tributaries formed great northern plains. These plains are filled with rich alluvial soil.

XIII)   The Indo-Gangetic Plains are categorized into three divisions

They are ...

·               The Western Part : Formed by Indus and its tributaries - the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej.

·               The Central Part : Formed by Ganga and its tributaries - Yamuna, Kosi, Sone etc.

·               The Eastern Part : The river Brahmaputra is mainly responsible.

·               "Doab" means the region with the fertile land between the two rivers.

VIV) Himalayan rivers and their formations

Bhabar     - The region where gravel and pebble sediments deposited by rivers. It is porous in nature.

Terai         - Swampy and Marshy region known for thick forest, rich wild life and agricultural operations.

XV)        The Peninsular Plateau

·               The Indian Peninsular Plateau is surrounded by the seas on three sides.

·               It is mainly composed of the old crystalline, hard igneous and metamorphic rock.

·               The topography of the plateau is slightly tilted towards east.

·               The Southern most tip of the plateau is Kanyakumari.

·               Chotangapur plateau is rich in mineral resources.

·               Western Ghats are higher than the EasternGhats.

·               In Nilgiris 'Dodabetta' is the highest peak, which is (2637 mts). near to Udagamandalam (Ooty) a famous hill station.

·               Western Ghats include Palani (Tamilnadu) Annamalai and Cardamom hills (Kerala).

·               Annaimudi of Annamalai hills is the highest peak in the South India, which is 2695 mts high.

·               The highest peak in Eastern Ghats is Aroma Konda near Chintha Palli.

XVI)            The Thar Desert

·                The Thar Desert is located on the leeward side of Aravallis in the North West to the country.

·                It occupies much of Western Rajasthan.

·                'Luni' is the only river in this area which disappears in desert without reaching the sea.

·                Indira Gandhi Canal is longest (650 kms) canal in the country which provides irrigation facility to the desert.

XVII)      The Coastal Plains

·                The southern part of the peninsular plateau is bordered by narrow coastal strips along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.

·                The western coast starts from the Rann of Kutch and ends at Kanyakumari. It is narrower than the east coast. This plain is uneven and broken by hilly terrain. It can be divided into three parts:

1)            Konkan Coast - Maharashtra and Goa.

2)            Canara Coast - Karnataka

3)            Malabar - Kerala

·                Bay of Bengal plains are wide and have a large surface structure. It stretches from Mahanadi in Odisha to Cauvery delta in Tamil Nadu. It can be divided into three parts.

4)            Coramandal - Tamilnadu

5)            Circar - Andhra Pradesh.

6)            Utkal - Odisha

·                Lakes like Chilka (Odisha) Kolleru and Pulikat (Andhra Pradesh) are also located in these plains.

XVIII)           The Islands

·                There are two groups of Islands in India. They are Andaman and Nicobar in Bay of Bengal and Lakshdweep Islands in Arabian Sea.

·                Narkondam and Barren Islands in Andaman and Nicobar Islands are volcanic in origin. Lakshadweep Islands are of coral origin.

·                Southern most tip of India is found in Nicobar Islands and called as Indira Point.

·                                                 Lakshadweep Islands are famous for a great variety of flora and fauna.